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US companies that helped Saddam with sarin/mustard

Saddam\'s WMD programs  have roots in other countries, including the 
United States, where biological stocks as well as other nuclear, 
chemical, and delivery systems. Although, much of this was done in 
the 80\'s there should be some concern on why ANY responsible business 
would help a known violator of human rights purchase these types of 
weapons. The full list of United States weapons suppliers are 
translated from an original German article at Rense.com. The list is 
also referenced at the The World Messenger \"U.S. Weapons, War 
History, Corporate Deals, Oil Suppliers, Nukes, Statistics and Facts\" 
site. This latter site also provides hyperlinks to the history of 
foreign actions in Iraq, including the funding from previous 
administrations. In retrospect, what administrations (hint: Ronald 
Reagan) would be stupid enough to help Iraq\'s WMD programs? Shaking 
hands with Saddam  Hussein and documents from these referenced sites 
should provide some basic clues. The US Companies that provided 
thiodiglycol or DPPM (respectively mustard or sarin chemical WMD  
precursor chemicals), and several equipment (not all) companies are 
listed below. The other chemicals, nuclear WMD, and biological WMD 
can also be found at these sources.

http://www.rense.com/general32/suppe.htm
http://www.worldmessenger.20m.com/weapons.html#wms
http://cns.miis.edu/research/wmdme/flow/iraq/seed.htm
 http://www.laweekly.com/ink/03/23/news-crogan2.php 
http://www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/USmadeIraq.html
http://www.law.com/jsp/article.jsp?id=1052440808465
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB82/index.htm
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB80/
 AL HADDAD ENTERPRISES, INC. 
(Formerly based in Nashville, Tennessee -- defunct) 
1984 to 1985 -- Company sold 60 tons of DMMP, a material used to make 
sarin gas, to Iraq. Also provided chemical-production equipment to 
Iraq. In 1984, customs officials at Kennedy International Airport 
seized another Al Haddad shipment of 1,100 pounds of potassium 
fluoride, a chemical used in nerve-gas production. Al Haddad was not 
charged in this attempted transfer of chemicals, which were destined 
for Iraq\'s Ministry of Pesticides. This firm also received letters of 
credit from BNL (an Italian bank) totaling $134,988 to sell knives 
and rubber blankets to Technical Corp. for Special Projects, an Iraqi 
front company. (Note: See Banca Nazionale del Lavoro entry for 
information about BNL\'s Iraqi loans and letters of credit.) 
The firm was owned by Sahib Abd al-Amir al-Haddad, an Iraqi-born, 
naturalized American citizen. According to corporate records from 
Tennessee\'s Department of State, Al Haddad operated a number of 
registered firms, which are all inactive, dissolved or merged out. 
These firms included Al Haddad Enterprises, Inc.; A. Saleh & S. Al-
Haddad, Inc.; and Al-Haddad Bros. Enterprises, Inc. Recent stories in 
The New York Times and The Tennessean reported that al-Haddad was 
arrested in Bulgaria in November 2002 while trying to arrange an arms 
sale to Iraq. At last report, Al-Haddad, 59, was awaiting extradition 
to Germany, where he is charged with conspiring in the late 1990s to 
purchase equipment for the manufacture of a giant Iraqi cannon. 
ALCOLAC INTERNATIONAL, INC 
(Formerly located in Baltimore, Maryland. Company was restructured as 
Alcolac, Inc., and it\'s currently listed as an active Georgia 
corporation. Company\'s assets now owned by French-based firm Rhodia, 
Inc., with U.S. operations based in Cranberry, New Jersey.) 
1988 -- Allegedly sold more than 300 tons of thiodiglycol (precursor 
material used to make mustard gas) via Nu Kraft Mercantile 
Corporation, which, according to congressional testimony and media 
reports, shipped the material to Jordan and then on to Iraq, through 
Iraq\'s Industrial Procurement Company. In the same period, Alcolac 
also shipped thiodiglycol to Iran and pleaded guilty in 1988 to one 
count of export violations for its Iranian shipments. Alcolac is 
currently one of the corporate defendants in a Texas civil suit filed 
on behalf of some 3,500 Gulf War vets allegedly suffering from Gulf 
War syndrome. The suit initially named 64 American and international 
companies that allegedly provided Iraq with materials used to develop 
chemical and biological weapons. However, a number of those companies 
will likely be sued in European courts, and the current number of 
defendants is in flux. Ronald Welsh, the attorney representing 
Alcolac in that suit, denied any company wrongdoing in connection 
with Iraq and added that he had no \"personal knowledge\" of any 
Alcolac shipments of thiodiglycol to Saddam Hussein\'s regime. But 
U.N. weapons-inspector reports, included in a 1992 Senate Banking 
Committee hearing on U.S. export policy toward Iraq, identified 
shipments of thiodiglycol that were sent to Iraq by Alcolac. 
A spokesman for the company that now owns Alcolac emphasized that 
the \"alleged illegal infractions\" occurred before Alcolac was 
obtained by the current ownership. 
LUMMUS CREST, INC. 
(Bloomfield, New Jersey -- now part of ABB Global, Inc., a Swiss 
conglomerate with U.S. headquarters in Norwalk, Connecticut.) 
1985 to 1989 -- Provided more than $250,000 worth of radio-spectrum 
analyzers. Also provided computers for inventory, quality control, 
lab analysis and engineering calculations to Iraq\'s Ministry of 
Industry and Military Industrialization (MIMI). The equipment was 
used for Iraq\'s multibillion-dollar petrochemical complex at Basra to 
make thiodiglycol, a chemical used in the manufacture of mustard gas. 
Lummus also received letters of credit for $53,827,776 from BNL (an 
Italian bank) to sell machinery and supplies to the Technical Corps 
for Special Projects, an Iraqi front company, according to 
documentation provided 
its nuclear-weapons program. Deal was financed with a program that 
was supplied by Mouse Master. Company may have ceased operations. 
NU KRAFT MERCANTILE CORP. 
(Formerly located in Brooklyn, New York) 
1988 -- An alleged front company, this subsidiary (reportedly no more 
than an empty warehouse) of Brooklyn-based United Steel and Strip 
Corp., an import/export firm, allegedly transferred to Iraq more than 
300 tons of thiodiglycol, which is used to make mustard gas. 
Allegedly received the illegally exported material from Alcolac 
International. The thiodiglycol reportedly traveled from Anthwerp, 
Belgium, to Jordan and then on to Iraq. Both Nu Kraft and United 
Steel and Strip Corp. have apparently ceased operations. 
PHILLIPS EXPORT 
(Now part of ConocoPhillips, a Houston, Texas-based oil and energy 
company.) 
1983 to 1985 -- Phillips Export (then part of Phillips Petroleum) 
sold 500 tons of thiodiglycol, a material used to make mustard gas, 
to the Iraqi State Enterprise for Pesticide Production, via Dutch 
firm KBS Holland. Also manufactured a five-ton shipment of 
thiodiglycol, which allegedly made its way to Iraq via the Spanish 
firm Cades. Cades claims chemical was destroyed prior to its 
delivery. Phillips Export/ConocoPhillips is a defendant in a Texas 
civil suit filed on behalf of some 3,500 Gulf War vets who are 
allegedly suffering from Gulf War Syndrome. The attorney representing 
ConocoPhillips in that class-action suit did not respond to the 
Weekly\'s call for comment. 
PURE AIRE CORP. 
(Formerly located in Charlotte, North Carolina) 
Date uncertain -- Named as chemical-weapons-materials supplier by 
U.N. weapons inspectors in the first round of inspections in the 
1990s. However, inspectors did not specify what Pure Aire materials 
were found at Iraq\'s Muthana weapons facility. Company may have 
ceased 
SULLAIRE CORP. 
(Formerly based in Charlotte, North Carolina) 
Dates unknown -- U.N. weapons inspectors in the first round of 
inspections after Gulf War I, found a variety of equipment and 
machinery supplied by Sullaire for use in Iraq\'s chemical-weapons 
program. Items included power-supply units, air filters for drying 
chemicals, buffer vessels, pressure and temperature regulators, and a 
refrigerator for air-drying and air compressors. Company may have 
ceased operations. 
 

 
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