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US Interventions Since 1950

Via NY Transfer News Collective  *  All the News that Doesn't Fit

sent by Rich Winkel (activ-l)

Edited by NY Transfer News

Post-World War Two US Foreign Interventions

World History.com 
http://www.worldhistory.com/wiki/L/List-of-U.S.-foreign-interventions-since-1945.htm


1950s:

Funding of French Indochina War from 1945 until 1954.

Korean War from 1950 until 1953: After communist North Koreans invade South
Korea, the UN, with every nation voting "yea" except for Yugoslavia, which
abstained, approves military support for South Korea, involving over a dozen
countries including the US.

U.S. (CIA) and UK (MI-6) succeed in removal of Prime Minister Mohammed
Mossadegh of Iran (Operation Ajax) - 1953.
http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/041600iran-cia-index.html

Food for Peace is established in 1954. Since the program started, it has
sent over 100 million metric tons of American food to 150 countries, or
about 3 billion people. This program with other US programs account for 60%
of the world's total food aid.

CIA-orchestrated overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala (Operation
PBSUCCESS) - 1954.

U.S. support for President Ngo Dinh Diem of Vietnam from 1955-1963.
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB101/

Lebanon crisis of 1958: The US assisted President Camille Chamoun when
Pan-Arbists advocated by Egypt's president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, attempted to
overthrow the Lebanese government.

After the Chinese bombing of ancient monasteries at Chatreng and Litang that
housed thousands of civilans in 1956 which violated the Plan for the
Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, the CIA aided Chushi Gandrug and Tensung
Dhanglang Magar's resistance movement.

U.S. support for Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista (amongst others against
Marxist insurgents) until his unpopularity and impending overthrow becomes
clear in 1959.

Two assassination attempts of general Abdul Karim Qassim, president of Iraq,
1959 and 1963 (the second one succeeded).

1960s:

Peace Corps, an independent U.S. federal agency, was established in 1961.
Within six years, Peace Corp was involved in education and agriculture
related projects of 55 Third World countries. Over the years, the Peace
Corps has expanded its mission to include improving education, health and
HIV/AIDS, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment
in about 80 developing and underdeveloped countries and nations with a
developing economy.

U.S.-backed abortive Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961.

CIA planning to assassinate Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba of the Congo and
alleged involvement in his death.
http://www.wsws.org/articles/2001/jan2001/lum-j10.shtml
http://www.wsws.org/articles/2002/mar2002/carl-m15.shtml Belgium has since
officially apologized for its own role in the affair.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1805546.stm

CIA involvement in the assassination of Rafael Lesnidas Trujillo, their
former ally in the Dominican Republic, in 1961
http://history-matters.com/archive/church/reports/ir/contents.htm
http://history-matters.com/archive/church/reports/ir/pdf/ChurchIR_3D_Trujillo.pdf

Alleged CIA involvement in overthrow of Juan Bosch, the democratically
elected leader of the Dominican Republic.
http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline.jsp?timeline=dominican_republic

Alleged CIA-backed overthrow of Josi Marma Velasco Ibarra of Ecuador in
1963.

U.S. backs coup against South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963.
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB101/index.htm

CIA-backed overthrow of Joco Goulart in Brazil in 1964.
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB118/index.htm
http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline.jsp?timeline=brazil

CIA covert support for the election of Eduardo Frei Montalva of Chile in
1964.

Alleged CIA-backed overthrow of Sukarno and subsequent support of Suharto in
Indonesia in 1965. Former officials of the U.S. Embassy in Indonesia
acknowledge supplying a list of 5,000 suspected communists -- given to them
by the CIA -- to the Indonesian government and checking them off the list
when those people were executed. The U.S. government also supplied 90% of
Indonesia's military hardware. http://www.namebase.org/kadane.html
http://www.namebase.org/scott.html

Vietnam War - (1964-1975)

Funding for the conservative, pro-Western Botswana Democratic Party

Involvement in riots and violence that brought down the government of Cheddi
Jagan in Guyana.

Alleged CIA-backed military coup brings dictator Joseph Mobutu to power in
the Congo in 1965.

Alleged CIA support to military coup against Ghanaian leader Kwame Nkrumah
in 1966.

Alleged CIA-backed military coup ushers in Regime of the Colonels in Greece
in 1967.

American support for Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War.

CIA-organized military operation ends in execution of Che Guevara in Bolivia
in 1967.

CIA involvement in the Tlatelolco massacre in Mexico, 1968

Beginning in 1968 the US bombed the Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos and Cambodia
to disrupt the logistical support given to the Viet Cong by the North
Vietnamese Army

1970s:

Alleged CIA-supported coup against Prince Sihanouk in Cambodia in 1970.

Alleged CIA-supported military coup against President Juan Josi Torres of
Bolivia in 1971.

Support for Pakistan in the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War.

Alleged CIA corruption of the 1972 Australian election.

1973: Political and economic intervention in Chile against president
Salvador Allende; contacts with military officers planning to overthrow
Allende.

Support for Indonesian invasion and occupation of Portuguese Timor (now East
Timor)(1975).

CIA support for UNITA rebels in Angola, from 1976 - 1984.

Alleged corruption of 1976 Portuguese Election.

Alleged corruption of 1976 Jamaican Election.

Approval and support for Argentina's "Dirty War". (1976-1983)

U.S. backs Salvadoran Armed Forces, civil-military junta, and President Josi
Napolesn Duarte during country's civil war, (1979-89).
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2147888.stm

Following overthrow of the dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle in Nicaragua by
the Sandinistas, the CIA supports the Contras from 1979 - 1989.
http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline.jsp?timeline=nicaragua

Support of armed opposition parties, including Khmer Rouge, to
Vietnamese-installed regime of Heng Samrin in Cambodia, 1979-1993.

Alleged American intervention in civil war in Yemen, from 1979-1984.

1980s:

Alleged support for Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaucescu, 1980's.

CIA support for Josi Napolesn Duarte (El Salvador) and other anti-Communist
politicians alleged to have links with right-wing death squads.

Provision of military assistance to Hisshne Habri of Chad, leading to the
overthrow of Libya-supported neutralist Goukouni Oueddei.

Sale of small arms and weapons production materials to Iraq during the
Iran-Iraq War

Sale of arms to Iran (see IranContra Affair)

Training of Nicaraguan Contras and support to military regimes in Honduras,
Guatemala, Panama, and South America during the 1980s (Operation Condor).

Alleged CIA support to Gwangju Massacre in 1980.

Alleged CIA and South African backing to a coup attempt in the Seychelles in
1981.

American support for Israel in the 1982 Lebanon War.

Support for military dictator Eframn Rmos Montt in Guatemala; Alleged CIA
support for the coup that brought him into power.

Invasion of Grenada, overthrow of Marxist government and assassination of
Maurice Bishop (Operation Urgent Fury) - 1983.

Afghanistan: Under CIA Director George H W Bush, provided funds, training
and weapons (mainly Stinger missiles to thwart Soviet air superiority
- they were the real reason why the mujahadeen won the war) with help of
other organisations (most of them are now 'terrorist' organisations) and the
Pakistani ISI (secret services)

Alleged involvement in the mysterious death of Samora Machel, President of
Mozambique (1986).

Support to coup against Timoci Bavadra, democratically elected Prime
Minister of Fiji in 1987.

In 1989, US establishes Support for East European Democracy to help assist
Poland and Hungary's transition into market-based democracies.

Operation Just Cause: In late 1989, the US invaded Panama and arrested
Manuel Noriega for drug trafficking after a U.S. Marine was killed and
Noriega declared war against the US.

1990s:

Beginning in December 1989 until 1996 when the Liberian civil war ended, the
United States attempted to get UN involved in negotations. The UN refused.
Meanwhile, the US provided humanitarian aid, including food and
developmental aid.

Intervention in Colombian civil war, 1990's

Corruption of elections in Bulgaria in 1990 and in Albania in 1991
http://members.aol.com/bblum6/bulgaria.htm.

1990: Funding to the opposition presidential candidate, Violeta Barrios de
Chamorro, in Sandinista-ruled Nicaragua. Chamorro won the election.

After Iraq invades Kuwait in 1990, King Fahd, fearing Saudi Arabia would be
Saddam Hussein's next target, invites U.S. troops to use the country as a
base.

UN-led Gulf War following Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, 1991

When Mount Pinatubo erupted in 1991, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program
helped evacuate 75,000 people and $250 million to $375 million worth of
equipment.

Alleged U.S. Support for ousting Jean-Bertrand Aristide from Haiti, 1991
http://members.aol.com/bblum6/haiti2.htm.

U.S.-led UN sanctions against Iraq, from 1990 to 2003.

The FREEDOM Support Act in 1992 amends Support for East European Democracy
to include the new independent states of the former Soviet Union to aid
their transition into market-based democracies.

Operation Provide Relief, a 1992 US-led humanitarian relief for Somalia.
After looting of the aid, it was reorganized as Operation Restore Hope, an
American military operation with the support of the United Nations to
deliver humanitarian aid and restore order to Somalia, that eventually lead
to the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993.

U.S. removal of Raoul Cedras from office in Haiti and temporary occupation
of the country, 1993.

Alleged support for Mexico in fighting the Zapatista Army of National
Liberation, 1994.

NATO bombing of Bosnian Serbs, 1995.

Responding to the 1995 flood in North Korea that caused a famine, the US
initially provided over $8 million in general humanitarian (China was the
only country to initially contribute more aid). However, eight years later,
the US has provided $644 million in aid to the country which comprises
nearly 50% of the aid going to North Korea.

U.S.-led bombing campaign, called Operation Desert Fox, against Iraq in
enforcement of the UN designated No-Fly zones created to protect Kurds and
Marsh Arabs, 1998.

Operation Infinite Reach: a US cruise missile strike on "terrorist bases"
and targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, including the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical
factory, after al Qaeda bombed two US ebassies in 1998.

NATO's bombing of Serbia in the Kosovo Conflict. Officially aimed at
preventing ethnic cleansing of Albanians, 1999. During this bombing the
Chinese embassy was hit. Some say this was done deliberately
http://www.fair.org/activism/embassy-bombing.html.

2000s:

U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, overthrow of Taliban when the government
refuse to deliver Al-Qaida leaders located in the country after the
September 11th attacks in 2001.

The Hague Invasion Act, 2002.

Alleged CIA-backed abortive coup against democratically-elected President
Hugo Chavez of Venezuela in 2002.
http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline.jsp?timeline=venezuela

U.S. Invasion of Iraq, overthrow of Saddam Hussein, 2003

American support in the overthrow of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide of
Haiti in 2004. (see: 2004 Haiti rebellion)

Interference in Salvadoran presidential election. US threatened to take
reprisals if the country would elect the socialist candidate Schafik Handal,
2004.

2004: Support to the Venezuelan opposition in the run-up to the referendum
on Hugo Chavez' rule. Many elements were linked to the above-mentioned coup
in 2002.

Alleged support (along with Spain and Britain) for a failed coup plot
against Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea in 2004.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1313571,00.html

Beyond these interventions, the United States has developed a great deal of
economic influence over many developing states. Some claim that the
International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have assisted American
foreign policy in this area. (If correct, this would also require the
implicit co-operation of other countries, as the US has only 18% of the
IMF's voting rights. http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/memdir/members.htm)


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